By Dr. Joseph Seckbach Ph.D, Aharon Oren Ph.D (auth.), Dr. Joseph Seckbach Ph.D (eds.)
ALGAE AND CYANOBACTRIA IN severe ENVIRONMENTS is a special choice of essays, contributed via prime scientists from all over the world, dedicated to algae – and a few similar microbes – saw in unforeseen harsh behavior, which it kind of feels are an oasis or backyard of Eden for those organisms. This well timed publication on Extremophilic alga, together with its specifically awesome micrographs, could provide clues in regards to the edges of lifestyles in the world and probably in other places within the universe.
Defining destinations from the anthropomorphic standpoint, the environments explored levels from serious and far away to "normal" areas. The algae mentioned, microbial oxygenic phototrophs, are labeled into quite a few different types based on their habitats. They thrive in numerous temperature levels, on the limits of pH values, in salt options, below UV radiation, dryness, heavy metals, anaerobic niches, less than a number of degrees of illuminations, and less than hydrostatic strain. Authors talk about bio-diversely algal territories ecologically – the recent springs with the thermophiles or acido-thermophiles; Antarctica, the Artic, and permafrost zones with their chilly enthusiasts (Psychrophiles); soda lakes with the alkaliphiles, saltine parts with halophiles. as well as common essays, Algal species mentioned intimately comprise diatoms, Cyanidium, Galdieria, Dunaliella, and Chroococcidiopsis.
This quantity is a needs to for college students of the sector of biodiversity, in addition to these in Phycology, ecology and common organic research.
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Extra info for Algae and Cyanobacteria in Extreme Environments
In some algal groups, such as in the dinoflagellates, cryptophytes, and euglenoids, the chloroplast is believed to have originated from an engulfed eukaryotic alga. Such chloroplasts are surrounded by an envelope composed of three or four membranes. Such a structure can be explained as originating as a result of a secondary endosymbiosis. Recently, Lee and Kugrens (2000) proposed that the evolution of algal secondary endosymbioses was directly correlated to the decrease in atmospheric CO2 during the late Paleozoic.
A special case is the glycosylated MAA of N. commune, which is excreted and accumulated extracellularly to provide UV protection. An additional sunscreen pigment often encountered is scytonemin, a unique dimeric indole alkaloid located in the sheath surrounding the cells of many species, coloring the cells yellow-brown, and providing light absorption around 390 nm (Castenholz and Garcia-Pichel, 2000). Moreover, cyanobacteria may possess effective mechanisms to repair UV-induced damage (Rothschild, 1999).
10. Comparison of the Performance of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Photosynthetic Microorganisms in Extreme Environments – Conclusions The outline presented earlier shows that both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms are abundantly found in environmental extremes of temperature, pH, salt concentration, and radiation. , Elster, 1999). Such a statement is surely true in the case of adaptation to high temperatures: here the prokaryotes – and especially the Archaea – greatly outperform the eukaryotes.