Analysis of Engineering Cycles. Power, Refrigerating and Gas by R. W. Haywood

By R. W. Haywood

Greatly revised, up to date and increased, the fourth version of this renowned textual content offers a rigorous analytical remedy of contemporary strength conversion plant. extraordinary for either its theoretical and sensible therapy of traditional and nuclear strength plant, and its experiences of refrigerating and gas-liquefaction plant. This fourth variation now comprises fabric on issues of accelerating problem within the fields of power 'saving' and relief of environmental toxins. This elevated insurance bargains in particular with the subsequent components: CHP (cogeneration) plant, reviews of either gasoline and coal burning plant designed to minimize poisonous emissions, and the research of PWR plant within the nuclear undefined, which has been prolonged to hide conceptual designs aimed toward higher inherent safeguard. With over 20 new sections plus new appendices and extra difficulties this article not just keeps its price but additionally complements its usefulness to the reader, masking components of present curiosity and value.

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Additional info for Analysis of Engineering Cycles. Power, Refrigerating and Gas Liquefaction Plant

Example text

Because (b — b ) is the greatest net work o u t p u t in the given situation, it is called the steady-flow available energy for the given change of state in the presence of the given environment. Expressing the R a n k i n e cycle efficiency in the form of e q n . 8) m a k e s it clearly evident that it relates to an ideal plant which produces a net work o u t p u t equal to the available energy. A further advantage of expressing the efficiency in this form is that, as will b e seen in C h a p t e r 7, the thermal efficiency of ideal regenerative steam cycles of much greater complexity can be expressed in precisely the same form.

T h e former n a m e derives from steam-engine terminology as the result of the similarity in shape of Fig. 5 to that of a steam-engine indicator diagram, while the latter arises from the fact that, in actual indicator diagrams for the type of engine u n d e r discussion, the ratio of the volumes corresponding to v and ν'3 varies with the load on the engine. For the isentropic process 1-2, as before: 3 2 2 T 2 = p T. 12) l For the constant-pressure process 2 - 3 : ^ - r = — = a, 1 v whence T = ocp T .

T h e ideal air-standard Diesel cycle In compression-ignition engines, a combination of a high compression ratio and approximately constant-volume combustion leads to peak 50 Simple Power and Refrigerating Plants pressures which can b e excessively high, particularly for large engines. T h e indicator diagram for these may b e m a d e less p e a k e d by suitably delayed timing and suitable control of the fuel injection. In the largest engines, such as are used in marine applications, the combustion then occurs m o r e nearly at constant pressure, as the piston moves down the cylinder, instead of at approximately constant volume.

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